AILERON/RUDDER MIXING EXPLAINED
Model Airplane News|February 2021
Build good habits now and fly better tomorrow

As the name implies, adverse yaw is an adverse or unfavorable condition that, among other things, delays achieving solo abilities. Traditionally, until his or her skills improve, struggling and committing to many hours of practice before soloing has been the assumed burden of a student pilot. Unknowingly and unnecessarily, novices have been fighting the additional challenge of flying with adverse yaw. Indeed, novice pilots have always assumed the lack of correlation between their control inputs/intentions and the response of the plane to be due to wind (or the need for more practice), when in fact adverse yaw has been a big factor!

This article details the practice of using aileron/rudder transmitter mixing to eliminate adverse yaw, i.e., the inherent opposite yaw or skid that is especially pronounced during aileron deflections on fl at-bottom-wing aircraft, such as those used for primary flight training. It’s probably safe to say that most of the people reading this learned to fly at the side of a recreational flier/instructor with little preflight preparation. As a result, most pilots are conditioned to “react” to what the airplane does, as opposed to having a plan and pro-actively controlling the plane. Consequently, most pilots naturally think that getting better at making corrections, having good reflexes, and experiencing more stick time are the keys to becoming a better flier. Rarely does adverse yaw or the advantages of aileron/rudder mixing when learning to fly ever come up. However, if you were to objectively compare the results achieved when training with aileron/rudder mixing versus without, you would discover an immediate improvement inconsistency and the rate of learning.

ADVERSE YAW

Space does not permit going into all the aerodynamics involved during aileron deflections, so put simply, adverse yaw is caused by the wing with the down-aileron generating more lift and therefore more drag than the wing with the raised aileron. While banking into turns, making course corrections, or exiting turns, this drag differential causes the airplane to yaw/ skid in the opposite direction in which the ailerons are applied. Therefore, pilots have to hold in the aileron longer to overcome the adverse skid. This causes an increase in the potential for over-controlling as well as the need to deal with a lack of consistency caused by the out-of-sync relationship between control inputs and the response of the plane. As a rule, adverse yaw is most pronounced on high-lift, flat-bottom wing aircraft and gets worse at slower airspeeds and/or when making larger aileron inputs. This explains why some people can fly a flat-bottom wing trainer around, but then struggle to control the plane during slower speed landings. (For example, adverse yaw is so severe on a scale Piper Cub, that when flown near stall speed, it will actually turn left when right aileron is applied and vice-versa!) Also, since the principle effect of wind is exaggerating deviations that would otherwise be minor on calmer days, adverse yaw creates a whole slew of problems when trying to fly a trainer in windy conditions.

Some common approaches to reduce the effects of adverse yaw in RC have been: flying at higher speeds, making the trainer less stable and more maneuverable by lessening wing dihedral, differential aileron travel (more up-aileron travel than down), avoiding wind, accepting it as how trainers fly, and continued reassurance from club members that the student will eventually “get it” with more practice. All of these only help to small and varying degrees.

Continue reading your story on the app

Continue reading your story in the magazine

MORE STORIES FROM MODEL AIRPLANE NEWSView All

Legend Hobby / Seagull Models - Cessna Grand Caravan 208

The Cessna Grand Caravan 208 is a legend in aviation circles. A single engine utility aircraft that punches up with capabilities that rival many twin engine aircraft in its class. Its seemingly simple configuration belies its near extreme utility.

8 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

PROPER CG LOCATION FOR AEROBATICS

If you are getting into aerobatics and are starting to perform more advanced maneuvers, it is time to discuss ways you can not only become a better pilot, but how you can also improve the flight characteristics of your airplanes.

5 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

Legend Hobby 13-Foot L-19 Bird Dog/ Cessna O-1

This famous multi-mission single engine observation aircraft served from 1950-1974. From calling out target locations to providing intel/recon information, the Bird Dog was a valued asset in both the Korean War and Vietnam.

1 min read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

EARN YOUR WINGS

10 Tips for First-Flight Success

6 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

Old School Model Works Fifty Six

The Fifty Six takes its design cues from the original .09- to .15-size Carl Goldberg Falcon 56 of the 1960s. Reworked to incorporate modern, lasercut techniques to make kit building better than ever.

1 min read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

FLYING TWINS Multi-engine warbirds made easy

Let’s face it, there’s just something extra special about twin-engine RC aircraft. Most modelers stop what they’re doing when a twin fires up on the flightline.

6 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

HOW TO BALANCE PROPELLERS

Four easy steps to increase performance and reduce vibration

5 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

PRODUCT REVIEW: RC PLANE STANDS BENCHTOP MODEL

I’m a sucker for shop stuff. I buy tools I will probably never use just because they are cool, or I might need to use them someday. When Glen from RC Plane Stands reached out about a review, however, I knew as soon as I browsed their website that I would be receiving something I would use a lot, maybe even daily.

2 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

SPIRIT OF RHINEBECK AWARD WINNER

A close up of Norman Malinowski’s 1/3-scale Albatros

3 mins read
Model Airplane News
January 2022

CENTER OF GRAVITY BASICS

The secret to a plane that flies well

6 mins read
Model Airplane News
July 2021
RELATED STORIES

GRILL GOALS

Let ’em sizzle down below And lower the grate for a last-minute char | Chefs and other masters of the flame share tips on how to elevate your outdoor cooking-including fresh techniques, surprising equipment, and even acts of bravery

10 mins read
Bloomberg Businessweek
June 13, 2022

CLENBUTEROL AND HEART DISEASE

BODYBUILDING SCIENCE

6 mins read
Muscular Development
July 2022

The Next Generation of Charging Adapters Opening Tesla's Network to All EVs

GAS PRICES ARE HOVERING AT AN ALL-TIME high, and so is the appeal of switching to an electric vehicle (EV).

5 mins read
Popular Mechanics US
July - August 2022

THE ANTI-ABORTION ARCHITECT

The man behind the Texas abortion ban now has an even more radical plan to reshape American law.

10+ mins read
Mother Jones
July/August 2022

THE IMPOSSIBLE RESCUE

When 13 members of a Thai youth soccer team became trapped in a flooded cave, the two-week ordeal mesmerized the world. Here's the extraordinary story of how they were saved.

10+ mins read
Reader's Digest US
July - August 2022

WARNING SIGNS YOU DON'T GET ENOUGH VITAMIN B12

It makes your nerves work

1 min read
Globe US
June 13, 2022

KIDS CAN LEARN WITHOUT INSTRUCTION

DON’T SHOW THIS to your kids, because they might cry. But guess how much time children in “traditional societies”— indigenous groups pretty much off the grid—spend in direct instruction, the way American kids do in school?

3 mins read
Reason magazine
July 2022

OBAMACARE AND SCOTUS, 10 YEARS LATER

THE PATIENT PROTECTION and Affordable Care Act of 2010, better known as Obamacare, was designed to patch the insurance gaps between Medicare, Medicaid, and employer-sponsored health care, which is bolstered by a tax carve-out for workplace benefits.

3 mins read
Reason magazine
July 2022

PADMA LAKSHMI - I'm Just GETTING STARTED

The Top Chef host shares her culinary memories, future plans and a special recipe

6 mins read
Closer US
May 30, 2022

KIM BASINGER My Secret STRUGGLE

THE OSCAR-WINNING ACTRESS SUFFERED SUCH SEVERE SOCIAL ANXIETY THAT SHE WOULD NOT LEAVE HER HOME FOR MONTHS

1 min read
Closer US
May 23, 2022