Wine and juice products are a very important part of the processed food industry. As fruits are perishable food products, it is difficult to store the fruits for longer time so as to consume them in the original form. In order to preserve fruits in the original condition, temperature and relative humidity conditions need to be maintained respective of the fruit to keep the fruits fresh for longer. There are techniques and systems available to maintain such conditions such as modified atmospheric storage (MAS) and controlled atmospheric storage (CAS). These systems are difficult to maintain and also increase the cost of the fruits, thus making it difficult for common people to afford such products. Thus, the most common approach to preserve the nutrients in the fruits and pass on to the consumers is by processing them and converting them into finer products such as juices and wine.
PROCESSING OF FRUIT JUICES AND WINE
The major processes in juice processing include harvesting, crushing, extraction, clarification and pasteurization. Wine processing includes the similar basic steps plus fermentation after crushing and aging after clarification step. In both the processes, clarification/ filtration is the most important step to attain desirable texture, clarity, consistency and taste of the final product. The crushed fruit is extracted to get the fruit juice. There are suspended particles in the fruit juice extracted in the form of suspended particles, seeds and other extraneous foreign particles. Filtration is a mechanical process to absorb/ retain the suspended particles for aesthetic quality and microbial stability. For coarser particles straining is done but to remove finer particles to get a clear juice, other filtration techniques are required (Fig. 1). Earth filtration, pad filtration, membrane filtration, cross-flow filtration are some of the filtration techniques used for filtration of juices over the years.
VARIOUS FILTRATION TECHNIQUES
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