Wheat blast infects the leaves and heads of the crop, but the canopy often remains green. Infection starts as brown to black spots, and eventually the entire spike above the infection points dries out and has a bleached or straw-like appearance.
Infected wheat heads produce shrivelled, poor-quality grain or fail to produce any grain at all. Wheat blast symptoms on the head resemble those of Fusarium head blight, but wheat blast lacks the characteristic pinkish discolouration that often develops on wheat heads infected by Fusarium. Instead, greyish fungal growth may be visible on the rachis between spikelets on the head. Some grass species may also serve as an alternative host for the pathogen, creating an additional source of inoculum and helping ensure the survival of the fungus.
Wheat blast poses a serious threat to global wheat production and food security because the fungus produces airborne spores that can be dispersed by wind within and between wheat fields in a short period, resulting in severe yield loss. Moreover, the fungus is seed-borne and can be transmitted from infected seed to seedlings after planting. This may facilitate long-distance dispersal across the world’s major wheat-producing countries through infected seeds.
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These salads are a celebration of summer, and are perfect to have on their own or as a side. They are also easy to make and super affordable. Bon appétit!
North West farmers extend helping hand to hungry communities
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Good Summer Rain Forecast For SA
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Pittsburgh's August Wilson African American Cultural Center
LOCATED IN THE HEART of downtown Pittsburgh, on Liberty Avenue close to Union Station and the David Lawrence Convention Center, the sleek and elegant but unpretentious August Wilson African American Cultural Center (awaacc) cannot fail to capture the eye and the imagination of anybody who is visiting Pittsburgh or, for that matter, of anybody who lives in the city.
Bishop Stephen Masilela is the general presbyter for the COGOP in Africa. He is also a counselor and registered marriage officer and currently serves as president for Evangelical and Pentecostal churches in Africa. He holds a diploma in Personnel Management and Training (IPM) from Bible Training Institute and is enrolled with the Gordon Conwell/COGOP Leader of Leaders Master’s Degree program and the Extension School of Ministry of Swaziland College of Theology for a theology degree. He is married to Sibongile and they are blessed with three children.
NICOLE PATTON-TERRY READING RESEARCHER
Nicole Patton-Terry loves helping kids learn to read. She is associate director of the Florida Center for Reading Research at the Florida State University. Patton-Terry works on teams with researchers, students, teachers, designers, parents, and community members. Together they study reading and develop tools that help children read.
With cruises that visit South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, CroisiEurope shows off the best that land and water have to offer.
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