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Social Media Conspiracy Twitter Facebook Image Credit: Reason magazine
Social Media Conspiracy Twitter Facebook Image Credit: Reason magazine

When Social Media Debunk Conspiracy Theories

A few days after the Parkland high school massacre, an aide to a Florida state legislator lost his job for claiming that two survivors were “not students here but actors that travel to various crisis [sic] when they happen.”

Jesse Walker

Such “crisis actor” rumors, which have spread after several recent public tragedies, are a reminder that people are capable of believing bizarre stories that are supported by only the thinnest alleged evidence. But some pundits think they represent something more: a breakdown in the media ecosystem.

A February 20 ThinkProgress article, to pick one representative example, announces in its lede that crisis-actor tales “have spread like wildfire across social media platforms—despite the repeated promises of Big Tech to crack down on fake news.” The author circles back to that idea at the end, arguing that “the viral spread of the ‘crisis actor’ theory, along with other recent examples of highly-shared fake content, shows that [Facebook] is still ripe for misinformation and exploitation.” One Facebook post touting the theory, he notes, has gotten more than 110,000 shares, and some of the videos promoting the idea have been “viewed tens of thousands of times.”

That sounds less impressive when you start thinking about the context. We do not know how many of those 110,000 shares were trolls or bots, those crisis actors of the online world. Nor do we know how many people watch a video because they’re inclined to believe it, how many watch because they’re inclined to laugh at it, and how many just turn it off after 30 seconds. And what other numbers should we be examining? The day aft


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