Somebody called Ellsworth the “Wickedest Cattletown in Kansas,” and the place had its moments. But its time was brief—and it almost didn’t get to that level of notoriety.
The town was platted in February 1867, just a few miles away from Fort Harker (previously Fort Ellsworth), but a small settlement was already in place. The location, in the center of the state, was no accident. The Santa Fe and Smoky Hill trails went through the area, and by July of that year, so did the Kansas Pacific Railway. But the next year saw growing pains.
The Smoky Hill River flooded the place in June. American Indian raids and a cholera outbreak caused many to flee; some accounts state only 50 residents remained of the estimated 1,000 who’d been there just months before.
But Arthur Larkin, one of the town fathers, wasn’t about to let his town die. He and others moved the town site to higher ground. In the fall of 1867, he built the Larkin House hotel and later opened a general store. Other buildings followed, and Ellsworth put down roots.
But stability didn’t mean peace. Outlaws Charlie Johnson and “Craig” ran roughshod over the locals before vigilantes lynched them in October 1867. Ellsworth County elected its first lawman in 1868—E.W. Kingsbury beat out some guy named James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickok for the sheriff’s job. Even that didn’t quell the violence.