It is time for physicians and biologists to realise that quantum physics applies at all scales. This will also bid fair to giving homeopathy its therapeutic credentials, as a safe, rational medical approach for healing people.
One of the first substances that benefits from a full quantum treatment including the vacuum is liquid water. Details have been published elsewhere [9, 16] and only conclusions will be reported here. The main result is that hydrogen bonding between water molecules should be considered as coherent van der Waals bonding. Coherent, in this context, means that water molecules and vacuum become welded together through an internal electromagnetic field borrowed from the vacuum and trapped in so-called ‘coherence domains.’
The role of this internal electromagnetic field is to perform virtual excitations of water molecules towards a Rydberg level localised on oxygen atoms lying about 0.5 eV below their ionisation threshold [ca. 12.6 eV]. As always in quantum field approaches, all the possible paths leading to this localised level should be taken into account. This means direct excitation from the ground state as well as in indirect transitions through other discrete levels [summation] as well as any energy level located in the continuum [integral]. Consequently, water properties are ruled by oscillator strengths involving the whole photonic excitation spectrum [0-200 eV], and not by a single HOMO-LUMO excitation, or a single ionisation potential.
As these electromagnetic excitations come from the internal vacuum of water molecules, and not from outside, they are necessarily virtual excitations, i.e., such that âˆ†E·âˆ†t < Ä§/2, with photons acquiring a negative mass in order to remain trapped between water molecules. The main observable consequence of this coherent internal, but invisible, mixing of matter, radiation and vacuum is the opening of a nonclassical coherence gap that obliges water molecules to stick together in a much more efficient way than by a mere van der Waals attraction involving only a symmetry breaking. In this case, there is both symmetry breaking and Bose-Einstein condensation of the virtual photons that are constantly exchanged between water molecules. This emergence of quantum phase coherence between matter and radiation is usually masqueraded as ‘hydrogen bonding’ in order to reduce the basically many-body problem to a two-body specific interaction.
This masquerading explains why it is so difficult to define clearly what is the real nature of hydrogen bonding with a lot of confusion lurking around its putative covalent versus electrostatic nature . In fact, this is a completely useless debate, as one tries to capture through a Schrödinger equation, or through a Coulomb’s interaction, that rigorously applies to an infinitely diluted single molecule —a phenomenon welding together several millions of undistinguishable molecules.
A coherence domain is, thus, made of a large amount of similar densely packed water molecules that display a coherent collective behaviour as a densely packed swarm of birds in the sky behave as a whole autonomous inseparable entity. The size of these coherent domains is fixed by the energy gap existing between the ground state and the focused excited state. For water, this gap is about 12 eV, corresponding to a photon wavelength of about 100 nm. It follows from this full quantum treatment, that liquid water should be considered as a nanostructured medium, and not as a homogeneous random liquid. Unfortunately, such a theoretical prediction seems to be in complete disagreement with NMR [18, 19], or neutron diffusion [20, 21], measurements that rather points to a homogeneous structure down to the molecular scale in the form of a flickering network of hydrogen bonds.
In fact, some other spectroscopic measurements such as IR [22, 23], Raman , X-ray absorption , or diffusion [26, 28], [see (29) for a refutation] really need a two-state model for liquid water, supporting the coherence domain picturing. This lack of agreement among scientists working in the field of water is one of the key reasons why the coherence domains hypothesis is still considered with suspicion. Quite recently, new quantum modelling has clarified the situation by demonstrating that coherence domains cannot form in uniform 3D systems, such as pure liquid water owing to the fact that the minimum number of electrons needed for stability in 3D is much greater than the number of atoms N, so stability cannot be achieved . However, the model does admit the appearance of coherent structures on the surface of existing mesoscopic volumes. This means that coherent water domains may occur in bulk liquid water, provided that nanobubbles, or other colloids, are present.
It follows that quantum effects coming from vacuum fluctuations leading to coherent domains formation should really be taken seriously into account before attempting modelling liquid water properties. Neglecting the influence of the vacuum and the coherence domains structure in the presence of nanobubbles should then be responsible for the contradictory and controversial results reported in past literature where the exact status of dissolved gases was not studied.
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