In general infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one-year (or longer) of unprotected sex.
Many physical & emotional factors can cause infertility. It many result from an issue with either you or your partner, or a combination of factors that interfere with pregnancy. The most common cause of female infertility is lack of or irregular ovulation. In premature ovarian failure the ovaries stop functioning before natural menopause. In Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) the ovaries may not release an egg regularly or they may not release a healthy egg.
PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is one of the most common Endocrine Disorder in women of reproductive age. Its prevalence may reach up to 18% of women of reproductive age. It usually presents with irregular menstrual cycles, signs of hyperandrogenism &insulin resistance. Patients with PCOS are at increased risk of developing reproductive, metabolic & cardiovascular disorders, including infertility, insulin resistance, DM type II, hypertension & atherosclerosis.
Moreover it may affect daily physical activities. The classic triad of this syndrome consists of chromic anovulation, hirsutism and obesity. If untreated it can cause rise in TSH level & insulin resistance. PCOS in usually diagnosed clinically in women who present with scanty menstruation, unwanted hair on body, acne, obesity after excluding other hormonal disorders. However, most women with PCOS do not exhibit all of these features and there is a considerable controversy about required criteria for the diagnosis.
It's diagnosis can be established by USG. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS reduces chances of infertility in women, but if untreated/maltreated the patient may remain infertile until proper treatment. PCOS is primarily a clinical diagnosis, and laboratory findings should only be used to support the clinical testing and rule out other serious disorders. Longevity of a case may make it complicated as we have discussed above, it affect other body hormones as well.
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October - December 2018