It is now widely understood that in addition to the FGARs, rodents are also showing resistance to two of the five SGARs available in Britain. Bromadiolone and difenacoum have both been identified as actives that rodents have shown a resistance to. These resistant rodents have been selected over decades of exposure to the first two SGARs and some are now able to consume both with little, or no, life-threatening effects.
Ms Jones explains: “Anticoagulants work by interrupting the vitamin K cycle in the liver. Vitamin K is essential for the clotting process in the blood of mammals and without it blood cannot coagulate, causing spontaneous haemorrhaging and death. Resistant animals have a mutation in their genetic code which allows the vitamin K cycle to continue uninterrupted making them tolerant of the anticoagulant. The University of Reading has reported multiple mutations from test samples. There are nine mutations in rats and two in mice. Against the most resistant rats, those with the L120Q mutation, bromadiolone and difenacoum are completely ineffective.”
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